All women experience the menstrual cycle in their lives. During menstrual, some changes such as hormonal changes occurs on a woman’s body. These changes and symptoms are known as premenstrual syndrome or PMS. Some of the symptoms of this syndrome are so slight and some of them are severe which causes irritation for women. Here, we consider all aspects of premenstrual syndrome, such as symptoms, causes and treatment.
Premenstrual syndrome, has a range of symptoms, such as mood changes, tender breasts, food cravings, fatigue, irritability and depression. It’s estimated that as many as 3 of every 4 menstruating women have experienced the premenstrual syndrome.
Symptoms occur predictably. But the physical and emotional changes of premenstrual syndrome can control by treatment and changing life style.
Symptoms of premenstrual syndrome
The list of potential signs and symptoms for premenstrual syndrome is so long, but most women only experience a few of these problems.
Emotional and behavioral symptoms are as following:
- Tension or anxiety
- Depressed mood
- Mood changes and irritability
- Appetite changes
- Poor concentration
- Social withdrawal
Physical symptoms are included as:
- Muscle pain
- Weight gain
- Abdominal bloating
- Breast tenderness
- Constipation or diarrhea
Signs and symptoms generally disappear within four days of the start of the menstrual period for most women.
Now, we consider some causes that affect on premenstrual syndrome:
Exactly what causes premenstrual syndrome is unknown, but several factors may contribute to the condition:
- Cyclic changes in hormones.
Symptoms will change with hormonal fluctuations and disappear after pregnancy and menopause.
- Chemical changes in brain.
Fluctuations of serotonin, has a key role in mood changes, and trigger the symptoms. Low levels of serotonin may result in depression, fatigue and sleep problems.
Some women experience undiagnosed depression, before their menopause.
Treatment of premenstrual syndrome
In this way, women should be aware about the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. Using anti depressant drugs, anti- inflammatory drugs such as advil and naproxen, control and reduce the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. Hormonal contraceptive drugs, stop ovulation and relief the symptoms.
Change their diet, for example, by avoiding salty food, abdominal bloating is reduced. Women should consume calcium, fresh fruits and vegetables, and carbohydrates.
Women should have enough rest and sleep, to reduce their anxious and stress, and do the exercises continuously, to reduce the premenstrual syndrome.
Dr. Mitra Bahmanpour, Gynecologist
Address: Khalij Fars Building. Next to 18th st. Velenjak. Tehran. Iran
Tell: +9821- 26641827